Opportunities for travel broadened as the working class could now travel further and more freely, although some conservatives worried this would cause a revolt. 1996/7 British Railways, under public ownership for half a century, is broken up into over 100 companies and privatised. In one of the biggest paintings the Gare Saint-Lazare, the train has just pulled in and the engine is going to leave again. Speechifying politicians worried that the railway “was a monopoly the most secure, the most lasting, the most injurious that can be conceived to the public good.” (p. 34, Williams). Most likely, it was a combination of “carnival train’s” place in chronology and the socioeconomic class of the artist that resulted in the religion of the machine. There were over 1,000 railways by 1800, most of them connected to an iron pit or a coal mine with a canal or river. Clause inserted in the Great Western Railway Act forbidding a station at Windsor. The nature of Victorian change could be seen as demographic, environmental, social, and industrial. Figure 1: Able-bodied poor breaking stones for roads in Bethnal Green, Illustrated London News, 15 February 1868. Marx, Karl & Friedrich Engels. 1995 Sept. Durham, NC. Ure, Andrew. London: Noel Carrington, 1947. ed. In contrast, John Dyer’s poem, The Fleece, concludes with a mesmerizing account of the machine as a mere tool for productivity. Jonathan Wordsworth. Proponents of the Victorian railways came in many different voices; there were investors, engineers and architects. Opposition in Leicester sparked opposition in London, and when the line was constructed in 1893 the course was altered to leave castle and Jewry Wall intact. The Furness Abby issue gave Wordsworth hope; he wrote that the antiquity was able to be saved by finding an alternative around it. Jenkins, W. J. The unnaturalness of the increase was also a point of concern for Wordsworth, who believed in the smaller scale of life that had been a part of the Romantic ideal of English country life. The Industrial Revolution is commonly seen as starting in Britain before spreading to other parts of the world. From the style of drawing, we make inferences about the intentions and perspective of the artist, but the whimsical portrayal of the machine may also be an indication of the time in which it was drawn. Almost every aspect of the older social milieu was turned on its head, while technology and industry became the new “Brazen Calfs, [sic]” (Carlyle, Hudson’s Statue, p. 1, Vaughon) of a worshipful middle-class that was itself remaking society in its image. The “weaving machine” rises before us and we are at once impressed by its immense technical detail. Which dignifies the artist, lifts the swain, He states simply that, the buildings to be built will be appealing in the quality of their material. Martin authored “Railways past, present, and prospective,” both positive endorsements that made an effort to sway public opinion. The term “industrial revolution” is a succinct catchphrase to describe a historical period, starting in 18 th-century Great Britain, where the pace of change appeared to speed up. Wordsworth’s Guide to the Lakes: The Fifth Edition (1835). The repetition of the circular form organizes an apparent clutter into a purer geometry. 12/6/99. The men who built the railways John Ruskin: The Passionate Moralist. E. Nevius Rodman Professor of History The industrial revolution was able to grow even more, but many of the key changes had already begun without rail. Martin, R.M. Societies for the preservation of antiquities, as well as architectural and archeological societies, were founded to oppose railway “vandalism” and to catalogue finds uncovered by railway construction. The Development of Roads and Railways Index. In Merchant’s opinion, the abandonment of this organic view of nature in favor of Bacon’s mechanical view led to the “death of the world soul and the removal of nature’s spirits” which “helped to support increasing environmental destruction by removing any scruples that might be associated with the view that nature was a living organism” (227). Unlike the other paintings, the trains do not seem to dominate this image; instead they are one of a variety of man-made products of the industrial age which fill the canvas, including: the tracks; the poles and light posts; the wall; the factory; and the array of massive buildings in the background. The simplicity of a pencil drawing or the lavish stroke of oil reminds us that the past we see is a construction, an impression, a feeling. The standard of living rose as a result. Rails of this era were powered by stationary engines, horse labor, and sometimes by locomotives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1916. In this wooden barn structure (indicated by the cantilevered roof) farmers-gone-businessmen discuss with pride the beauty of this beast. They worried that the railways would “contaminate” the bucolic rural landscapes that had come to embody middle-class dreams of “arriving,” which had inspired artists and poets as the height of natural perfection, and had nurtured generations of middle and upper class British with visions of a “green and pleasant land” as a national ideal. The Grasmere Journal. Published: 24/10/2012 KS3 | Change and continuity | Industrial Age: 1750-1900 2 pages In his Appeal to the Public in 1837, George Godwin, an associate of the institute of British Architects, does an excellent job identifying and expounding upon the advantages of rails. The aesthetics of the machine rise completely from its utility and increased productivity, rather than from some innate beauty of its pieces. Maps vii-x in Appendix I provide an overview of British railway development 1845-1914, and provide some sense of scale: the railways expanded at an incredible rate, and it seems impossible that a few examples of popular concern should have a significant impact – particularly since, by 1916, general opinion had shifted to favor railways and the changes they helped to bring. There were a great many fortunes made by the iron roads, but, these writers remind us, there were also a great many things lost or destroyed, and among these was an older, and slower, way of life. The most famous case of railway vandalism involved the ruins of Furness Abbey, a Cistercian monastery hidden away in the Vale of Nightshade. Their hot palms itching – all their being fill’d [4] Because this work lacks people it exemplifies the estrangement of man who becomes Ure’s “mere onlooker.” In the lower right hand corner of the image there are several engines and cars unattached from each other suggesting that they have remained idle. In 1801 Trevithic invented a steam driven locomotive which ran on roads, and 1813 William Hedly built Puffing Billy for use in mines, followed a year later by George Stephenson’s engine. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. This led him to conclude that the Lakes district was just as worthy of saving, Sacred as a relic of the devotion of our ancestors deserves to be kept, there are temples of Nature, temples built by the Almighty, which have still higher claim to be left un-violated. From there our eyes our lead to the parts spilling before us. Giclee print of the steam engine used in erecting Shop Penn’s Marine Factory, Greenwich. In  1844, the proposed Kendal and Windermere rail line threatened to violate William Wordsworth’s precious lakes district. This would be advantageous to day-trippers, as they would have more time at the chosen location to enjoy the sights. Farmers were concerned about their crops and produce: no one knew the effects of railway development on, say, the average hen’s laying capacity, or a cow’s grazing habits. Even Tennyson penned a paean to change: (p. 41, Williams) In 1844, Peel’s Bank Act was passed as an attempt to prevent banks from issuing credit past their gold reserves. Self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praised his achievements. Flashing a fierce unconquerable greed – (pp. Yet exactly how, and where, this great new power was to be harnessed was the topic of a continuing debate. Since the painting depicts the city, there are no obvious signs of nature. There are multiple ways of interpreting and analyzing the paintings of the Industrial Revolution. Cleaveland-Stevens, Edward. One, intent vol. Cold, hard reason dominates where emotion used to reign in the depiction’s of animate subjects. The railway will intrude upon this ‘temple’ as Wordsworth sees it. And again, many of those “railway kings” who pointed to the upper-classes as draconian and insensitive to the needs of the poor strongly resisted instituting penny-a-mile fares and other third-class conveyance schemes.

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